The influence of the oxidative state of chylomicron remnants (CMR) on the mechanisms of their uptake and induction of lipid accumulation by macrophages derived from the human monocyte cell line, THP-1, during foam cell formation was investigated using chylomicron-remnant-like particles (CRLPs) at 3 different levels of oxidation. The oxidative state of CRLPs was varied by exposure to CuSO4 (oxCRLPs) or incorporation of the antioxidant, probucol (pCRLPs) into the particles. oxCRLPs caused significantly less accumulation of triacylglycerol in the macrophages than CRLPs, and their rate of uptake was lower, while pCRLPs caused more lipid accumulation and were taken up faster. Uptake of all 3 types of particles was inhibited to a similar extent when entry via the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor related protein (80-90%), LDL receptor (- 30-40%), CD36 (- 40%) and phagocytosis (- 35-40%) was blocked using lactoferrin, excess LDL, anti-CD36 and cytochalasin D, respectively, but blocking scavenger receptors-A or -B1 using poly inosinic acid or excess HDL had no effect. These findings show that oxidation of CRLPs lowers their rate of uptake and induction of lipid accumulation in macrophages. However, oxidation does not change the main pathways of internalisation of CRLPs into THP-1 macrophages, which occur mainly via the LRP with some contribution from the LDLr, while CD36 and phagocytosis have only a minor role, regardless of the oxidative state of the particles. Thus, the effects of CMR oxidation on foam cell formation contrast sharply with those of LDL oxidation and this may be important in the role of dietary oxidized lipids and antioxidants in modulating atherosclerosis. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bejta, F., Moore, E. H., Avella, M., Gough, P. J., Suckling, K. E., & Botham, K. M. (2007). Oxidation of chylomicron remnant-like particles inhibits their uptake by THP-1 macrophages by apolipoprotein E-dependent processes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1771(7), 901–910. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2007.04.013