The oxidation hypothesis of atherosclerosis proposes that oxidized LDL is a major causative factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Although this hypothesis has received strong mechanistic support and many animal studies demonstrated profound atheroprotective effects of antioxidants, which reduce LDL oxidation, the results of human clinical trials with antioxidants were mainly negative, except in selected groups of patients with clearly increased systemic oxidative stress. We propose that even if reducing lipoprotein oxidation in humans might be difficult to achieve, deeper understanding of mechanisms by which oxidized LDL promotes atherosclerosis and targeting these specific mechanisms will offer novel approaches to treatment of cardiovascular disease. In this review article, we focus on oxidized cholesteryl esters (OxCE), which are a major component of minimally and extensively oxidized LDL and of human atherosclerotic lesions. OxCE and OxCE-protein covalent adducts induce profound biological effects. Among these effects, OxCE activate macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and spleen tyrosine kinase and induce macropinocytosis resulting in lipid accumulation, generation of reactive oxygen species and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Specific inhibition of OxCE-induced TLR4 activation, as well as blocking other inflammatory effects of OxCE, may offer novel treatments of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid modification and lipid peroxidation products in innate immunity and inflammation edited by Christoph J. Binder.
Choi, S. H., Sviridov, D., & Miller, Y. I. (2017, April 1). Oxidized cholesteryl esters and inflammation. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids. Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2016.06.020