Here we describe a case of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis recorded in an infant initially suspected for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia due to the clinical and haematological presentation. Eventually the patient was found positive for Leishmania infantum infection and successfully treated. This case emphasises how pivotal a 'One Health' approach is for diagnosing this zoonotic disease; highlighting the importance of including Visceral Leishmaniasis in the differential diagnosis of leukaemia-like syndromes in infants travelling to, and living in, the Mediterranean region. © 2013 Lorusso et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Lorusso, V., Dantas-Torres, F., Caprio, F., Manzionna, M., Santoro, N., Baneth, G., & Otranto, D. (2013). Paediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis in Italy: A “One Health” approach is needed. Parasites and Vectors, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-123