Permanent parkinsonism was observed in a man with chronic exposure to the fungicide maneb (manganese ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate). Symptoms developed at 37 years of age, two years after exposure had ceased. To our knowledge, this is the second report on parkinsonism associated with exposure to maneb. Manganese is a well-known parkinsonigen toxin in humans. More recently, it has been shown that dithiocarbamates can also induce extrapyramidal syndromes. The biochemical effects of manganese and dithiocarbamates are reviewed and their possible neurotoxic mechanisms are discussed. Both of these components may have played a role in this case.
Meco, G., Bonifati, V., Vanacore, N., & Fabrizio, E. (1994). Parkinsonism after chronic exposure to the fungicide maneb (manganese ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate). Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 20(4), 301–305. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.1394