PURPOSE Empowerment in patients can lead to a higher participation in care and self-management skills. However, there are a limited number of high-quality instruments to assess empowerment and its various dimensions in young persons. The aim was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Gothenburg Young Persons Empowerment Scale (GYPES). METHODS The GYPES is a 15-item questionnaire designed to measure patient empowerment in young persons with chronic conditions. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the scale. Studies I and II assessed face, content and factorial validity, as well as responsiveness and reliability in young persons with congenital heart disease and diabetes. After these studies problematic items were identified and reworded and the final version of the GYPES was tested in young persons with diabetes in study III. RESULTS The content and face validity of the scale was confirmed in study I. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) in study II supported the five-factor structure of the GYPES. However, one item had a low factor loading. The scale was revised and evaluated in study III. CFA of this version supported adequate model fit with factor loadings ranging from 0.385-0.941. A second-order model had an adequate fit to the data. Cronbach's alpha for the overall scale was 0.858 and for each subscale, alphas range from 0.609-0.858. CONCLUSIONS GYPES was developed to measure patient empowerment in young persons with chronic conditions. Preliminary evidence supports that the GYPES may be a valid and reliable tool for assessing young persons' empowerment.
Mora, M. A., Luyckx, K., Sparud-Lundin, C., Peeters, M., van Staa, A. L., Sattoe, J., … Moons, P. (2018). Patient empowerment in young persons with chronic conditions: Psychometric properties of the Gothenburg Young Persons Empowerment Scale (GYPES). PLoS ONE, 13(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201007