Background-—Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease. A body of evidence suggests that p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), a uremic toxin, is associated with the cardiovascular mortality rate of patients with chronic kidney disease; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this feature have not yet been fully elucidated. Methods and Results-—We aimed to determine whether PCS accumulation could adversely affect cardiac dysfunction via direct cytotoxicity to cardiomyocytes. In mice that underwent 5/6 nephrectomy, PCS promoted cardiac apoptosis and affected the ratio of left ventricular transmitral early peak flow velocity to left ventricular transmitral late peak flow velocity (the E/A ratio) observed by echocardiography (n=8 in each group). Apocynin, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase activity, attenuates this alteration of the E/A ratio (n=6 in each group). PCS also exhibited proapoptotic properties in H9c2 cells by upregulating the expression of p22phox and p47phox, NADPH oxidase subunits, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Apocynin and N-acetylcysteine were both able to suppress the effect of PCS, underscoring the importance of NADPH oxidase activation for the mechanism of action. Conclusions-—This study demonstrated that the cardiac toxicity of PCS is at least partially attributed to induced NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species production facilitating cardiac apoptosis and resulting in diastolic dysfunction.
Han, H., Zhu, J., Zhu, Z., Ni, J., Du, R., Dai, Y., … Zhang, R. (2015). p-Cresyl sulfate aggravates cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic kidney disease by enhancing apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Journal of the American Heart Association, 4(6), e001852. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.115.001852