BACKGROUND: Signaling through protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) is a major contributor to the transmission of mitogenic stimuli to the interior of the cell and nucleus. The present study was designed to determine the effect of the tyrphostin AG1295, a selective blocker of PDGF-receptor PTK, on the growth of porcine and human smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in culture, on the outgrowth kinetics of SMCs from porcine and human arterial explants, and on neointimal formation after balloon injury in pigs. METHODS AND RESULTS: SMCs for culture were obtained from porcine abdominal aortas, human internal mammary arteries, and endarterectomy tissue from a single human carotid artery. Addition of AG1295 to SMCs before PDGF stimulation completely inhibited PDGF-beta-receptor tyrosine phosphorylation without affecting the level of PDGF-beta-receptor. AG1295 resulted in a selective, reversible inhibition of SMC proliferation in culture (76%) with only mild (13.5%) inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. The number of SMCs accumulating around explants of porcine carotid arteries and human endarterectomy specimens 12, 15, 19, 22, and 24 days after plating was reduced by 82% to 92% in AG1295-treated compared with nontreated specimens, and initiation of SMC outgrowth was markedly delayed. The numbers of cells accumulated 10 days after initiation of outgrowth were significantly lower in treated versus control explants. Local intravascular delivery of AG1295-impregnated polylactic acid-based nanoparticles (130+/-25 nm) to the site of balloon injury to porcine femoral arteries resulted in significant reductions in intima/media area ratio and luminal cross-sectional area narrowing by neointima compared with contralateral control arteries to which empty nanoparticles were applied (0.15+/-0.07 versus 0.09+/-0.03, P=.046 and 20+/-4% versus 10+/-4%, P=.0009, n=6 for both). CONCLUSIONS: The tyrphostin AG1295, a selective blocker of PDGF-receptor kinase, exerts a marked inhibitory effect on the activation, migration, and proliferation of porcine and human SMCs in vitro and an approximately 50% inhibitory effect on neointimal formation after balloon injury in porcine femoral arteries when delivered via biodegradable nanoparticles. Further studies appear to be warranted to evaluate the applicability of this novel approach to the interventional setting.
Banai, S. (1998). PDGF-receptor tyrosine kinase blocker AG1295 selectively attenuates smooth muscle cell growth in vitro and reduces neointimal formation after balloon angioplasty in swine. Circulation, 97(19), 1960–1969. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.97.19.1960