Key circulating molecules that link vitamin D (VD) to pediatric obesity and its co-morbidities remain unclear. Using a proteomic approach, our objective was to identify key molecules in obese children dichotomized according to 25OH-vitamin D (25OHD) levels. A total of 42 obese children (M/F = 18/24) were divided according to their 25OHD3 levels into 25OHD3 deficient (VDD; n = 18; 25OHD<15 ng/ml) or normal subjects (NVD; n = 24;>30 ng/ml). Plasma proteomic analyses by two dimensional (2D)-electrophoresis were performed at baseline in all subjects. VDD subjects underwent a 12mo treatment with 3000 IU vitamin D3 once a week to confirm the proteomic analyses. The proteomic analyses identified 53 "spots" that differed between VDD and NVD (p<0.05), amongst which adiponectin was identified. Adiponectin was selected for confirmational studies due to its tight association with obesity and diabetes mellitus. Western Immunoblot (WIB) analyses of 2D-gels demonstrated a downregulation of adiponectin in VDD subjects, which was confirmed in the plasma from VDD with respect to NVD subjects (p<0.035) and increased following 12mo vitamin D3 supplementation in VDD subjects (p<0.02). High molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, a surrogate indicator of insulin sensitivity, was significantly lower in VDD subjects (p<0.02) and improved with vitamin D3 supplementation (p<0.042). A direct effect in vitro of 1α,25-(OH)2D3 on adipocyte adiponectin synthesis was demonstrated, with adiponectin and its multimeric forms upregulated, even at low pharmacological doses (10-9 M) of 1α,25-(OH)2D3. This upregulation was paralleled by the adiponectin interactive protein, DsbA-L, suggesting that the VD regulation of adiponectin involves post-transciptional events. Using a proteomic approach, multimeric adiponectin has been identified as a key plasma protein that links VDD to pediatric obesity. © 2014 Walker et al.
Walker, G. E., Ricotti, R., Roccio, M., Moia, S., Bellone, S., Prodam, F., & Bona, G. (2014). Pediatric obesity and vitamin D deficiency: A proteomic approach identifies multimeric adiponectin as a key link between these conditions. PLoS ONE, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083685