Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty, first performed by Inoue in 1982, was a rational progression from 4 decades of experience with the blunt surgical dilatation technique of closed mitral commissurotomy. As with surgical commissurotomy, balloon valvuloplasty relieves mitral stenosis by the splitting of fused commissures. A series of studies have shown that balloon valvuloplasty achieves excellent acute hemodynamic results in close to 90% of patients, with a typical 100% increase in mitral valve area. Over the past 15 years since Inoue's first patient, a number of other techniques have been introduced and largely discarded in favor of the original approach. Advances have occurred along the lines of improved noninvasive assessment of mitral valve disease, which have allowed better case selection and prediction of outcome. Follow-up series have shown sustained improvement, with modest rates of complications and restenosis. Comparative studies have shown that balloon valvuloplasty is as effective and safe as surgical commissurotomy, and is a cost-effective procedure of first choice in ideal patients.
Glazier, J. J., & Turi, Z. G. (1997). Percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 40(1), 5–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0033-0620(97)80019-9