Phantom phenomena and body scheme after limb amputation: A literature review

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Phantom phenomena are subject of various, often inconsistent, descriptions, and new concepts and treatment approaches emerge. The aim of the study is to describe contempo- rary terminology and developments in the field, and to share personal experience. A review of English and French language literature, published prior to 27th February, 2012, extracted from PubMed/MEDLINE,, GoogleScholar databases, and by hand searching of selected full text papers and textbooks with correspondence to personal clinical experience was performed. The terminology and classification of phantom phenomena sensations, relations be-tween intensity and character of phantom pain to the etiology and level of amputations, as well as the influence of presence and intensity of pre-operative limb pain and post-operative stump pain on phantom phenomena are described. The benefits of mirror therapy and early introduction of prosthesis and applying functional prosthesis are also presented, with a glance at other conservative and surgical treatment approaches. © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.




Pirowska, A., Wloch, T., Nowobilski, R., Plaszewski, M., Hocini, A., & Ménager, D. (2014). Phantom phenomena and body scheme after limb amputation: A literature review. Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska. Elsevier B.V.

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