Two equilibrium models based on statistical physics, i.e., monolayer model with single energy and multilayer model with saturation, were developed and employed to access the steric and energetic aspects in the adsorption of reactive violet 5 dye (RV-5) on cocoa shell activated carbon (AC) and commercial activated carbon (CAC), at different temperatures (from 298 to 323 K). The results showed that the multilayer model with saturation was able to represent the adsorption system. This model assumes that the adsorption occurs by a formation of certain number of layers. The n values ranged from 1.10 to 2.98, indicating that the adsorbate molecules interacted in an inclined position on the adsorbent surface and aggregate in solution. The study of the total number of the formed layers (1 + L2) showed that the steric hindrance is the dominant factor. The description of the adsorbate–adsorbent interactions by calculation of the adsorption energy indicated that the process occurred by physisorption in nature, since the values were lower than 40 kJ mol−1.
Sellaoui, L., Lima, É. C., Dotto, G. L., Dias, S. L. P., & Ben Lamine, A. (2017). Physicochemical modeling of reactive violet 5 dye adsorption on home-made cocoa shell and commercial activated carbons using the statistical physics theory. Results in Physics, 7, 233–237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rinp.2016.12.014