Composite flour from wheat flour and Tempoyak Flour (TF) was produced in this study. Three different bread formulations from the composite flour were produced, containing 5% TF (TF5), 10% TF (TF10) and 15% TF (TF15). Bread samples were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics compared with control bread made from 100% wheat flour. The resistant starch content increased significantly (p<0.05) with a higher level of TF. The increasing TF level in the bread formulations significantly decreased (p<0.05) the glycemic index. The use of TF in bread decreased the loaf volume, specific volume and oven spring; however, it increased the loaf weight. The results of a Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) showed that the hardness of the breads varied significantly and increased with increasing TF in the formulation. However, substitution of TF at 5% did not affect the cohesiveness or chewiness of bread compared with the 10 and 15% substitutions. The results of the hedonic analysis demonstrated that all treatments and the control had no significant differences (p>0.05) in aroma. The use of up to 10% TF is acceptable according to the overall acceptance scores of the panelists.
Ariffin, F., Baharom, M. A., Kaur, B., & Murad, M. (2015). The physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation of bread made with a composite flour from wheat and tempoyak (Fermented durian). American Journal of Applied Sciences, 12(11), 775–784. https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2015.775.784