Phytoestrogens and risk of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies

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{BACKGROUND} Epidemiologic studies have reported various results relating phytoestrogens to prostate cancer {(PCa).} The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive meta-analysis on the extent of the possible association between phytoestrogens (including consumption and serum concentration) and the risk of {PCa.} {METHODS} Eligible studies were retrieved via both computer searches and review of references. The summary relative risk ratio {(RR)} or odds ratio {(OR)} and 95 % confidence interval {(CI)} were calculated with random effects models. {RESULTS} A total of 11 studies (2 cohort and 9 case-control studies) on phytoestrogen intake and 8 studies on serum concentration were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio {(OR)} showed a significant influence of the highest phytoestrogens consumption {(OR} 0.80, 95 % {CI} 0.70-0.91) and serum concentration {(OR} 0.83, 95 % {CI} 0.70-0.99) on the risk of {PCa.} In stratified analysis, high genistein and daidzein intake and increased serum concentration of enterolactone were associated with a significant reduced risk of {PCa.} However, no significant associations were observed for isoflavone intake, lignans intake, or serum concentrations of genistein, daidzein, or equol. {CONCLUSIONS} The overall current literature suggests that phytoestrogen intake is associated with a decreased risk of {PCa,} especially genistein and daidzein intake. Increased serum concentration of enterolactone was also associated with a significant reduced risk of {PCa.} Further efforts should be made to clarify the underlying biological mechanisms.




He, J., Wang, S., Zhou, M., Yu, W., Zhang, Y., & He, X. (2015). Phytoestrogens and risk of prostate cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies. World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 13(1).

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