Background: Individuals with certain chronic medical conditions are at higher risk of developing pneumonia and pneumococcal disease than those without. Using data from the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA), this post hoc analysis assessed the efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in adults aged ≥65 years with at-risk conditions. Methods: The Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized, placebo-controlled study in the Netherlands in which adults aged ≥65 years received either PCV13 or placebo. Outcomes of interest were identified using prespecified clinical criteria, radiographic confirmation, routine microbiologic testing, and a serotype-specific urinary antigen detection assay. In this post hoc analysis, participants were classified by at-risk status based on self-reporting of any of the following chronic medical conditions: heart disease, lung disease, asthma, diabetes, liver disease, and smoking. The objective of this analysis was to assess PCV13 vaccine efficacy (VE) against a first episode of vaccine-serotype community-acquired pneumonia (VT-CAP) in at-risk participants. Results: Of the 84,496 adults enrolled in the study, 41,385 (49.2%) were considered at risk owing to chronic medical conditions. Of the 139 VT-CAP cases, 115 (82.7%) occurred in these participants. VE of PCV13 against a first episode of VT-CAP among participants with at-risk conditions was 40.3% (95.2% CI: 11.4%, 60.2%). Average duration of follow-up since vaccination was 3.95 years for at-risk participants; protection did not wane over the study period. Conclusions: This post hoc analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPiTA) showed significant and persistent efficacy of PCV13 against VT-CAP in at-risk older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00744263.
Suaya, J. A., Jiang, Q., Scott, D. A., Gruber, W. C., Webber, C., Schmoele-Thoma, B., … Isturiz, R. E. (2018). Post hoc analysis of the efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against vaccine-type community-acquired pneumonia in at-risk older adults. Vaccine, 36(11), 1477–1483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.01.049