The study investigated the preparation and characterization of biochars from water hyacinth at 300° C to 700° C for cadmium (Cd) removal from aqueous solutions. The adsorption process was dominated by oxygen-containing functional groups with irregular surfaces via esterification reactions. Furthermore, the mineral components in the biochars also contributed to Cd absorption through precipitation. Parameters such as the effects of solution pH, contact time, and initial concentration were studied. The optimum pH value was observed at 5.0, in which nearly 90% of Cd was removed. The maximum Cd adsorption capacities based on the Langmuir isotherm were calculated at 49.837, 36.899, and 25.826 mg g-1 . The adsorption processes of the biochars followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics, with the equilibrium achieved around 5 h. The biochar from E. crassipes is a promising adsorbent for the treatment of wastewater, which can in turn convert one environmental problem to a new cleaning Technology.
Li, F., Shen, K., Long, X., Wen, J., Xie, X., Zeng, X., … Zhong, R. (2016). Preparation and characterization of biochars from eichornia crassipes for cadmium removal in aqueous solutions. PLoS ONE, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148132