Preparation and chemical characteristics of Karunguruvai Khadi used in the traditional Siddha formulation of herbo-mineral-based medicine

Citations of this article
Mendeley users who have this article in their library.


Introduction Khadi is an extract that has been used in the preparation of Pooneeru (muppu) in Siddha medicine, but it has not been scientifically evaluated for modern medicinal purposes. The present study examines the preparation and chemical composition of Khadi. Materials and methods According to the method of the palm leaf literature, Karunguruvai and Samba paddy grains were selected for the preparation of Khadi. After removing the husk of the paddies, the cleaned Karunguruvai and Samba rice were processed according to the methods of Swami and Ramasamy Khon. The processed Khadi of Karunguruvai and Samba were analyzed for chemical constituents and were microbiologically assessed. The chemical composition of the paddy grains was also evaluated to compare with the Khadi constituents. Results The major elements of the paddy grains of Karunguruvai and Samba were calcium (CaO) and sodium (Na2O). The predominant trace elements in the Samba rice were nickel and cadmium, whereas Karunguruvai rice contained arsenic, nickel, copper, and cadmium. Samba Khadi contained the trace elements mercury, chromium, lead, copper, and cobalt, whereas Karunguruvai Khadi had a high content of mercury, vanadium, arsenic, nickel, copper, cadmium, barium, and strontium. Karunguruvai Khadi also contained silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), iron oxide (FeO), manganese oxide (MnO), calcium oxide (CaO), and sodium carbonate (Na2O). By contrast, Samba Khadi contained only ferrous oxide (FeO), calcium oxide (CaO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2), which were chemical constituents of the Samba rice. Discussion The composition of Karunguruvai rice was compared with Samba rice and it is identified the absence of heavy metals in Samba as well as Karunguruvai rice. Both of rice powders have more or less similar chemical compounds except phosphorous content. Karunguruvai rice possesses more CaO than Samba rice. The bacterial and fungal activities were assessed during the different stages of Khadi preparation - no activities were found in any form of the Khadi. This suggests that Khadi may have a preventive effect against fungal and bacterial infections. Conclusion The result of the chemical analysis of Khadi extracts showed that Khadi prepared from the Karunguruvai paddy grains (rice) was the best base solvent for ion exchange in the preparation of muppu than Samba Khadi. The analysis of the composition of these two types of Karunguruvai Khadi show that it is a good solvent for the elimination of heavy metals and for the enrichment of elements in Pooneeru powder (muppu), the chuurnam of Siddha drugs. These characteristics enhance the therapeutic potential and safety of the drugs for healing chronic diseases.




Chellakkan, E., Nainarpandian, C., Blessed, F., & Gnanamanickam, V. R. (2016). Preparation and chemical characteristics of Karunguruvai Khadi used in the traditional Siddha formulation of herbo-mineral-based medicine. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 6(1), 105–111.

Register to see more suggestions

Mendeley helps you to discover research relevant for your work.

Already have an account?

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free