Preservation of endogenous antioxidant activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation as common mechanisms of antiatherosclerotic effects of vitamin E, lovastatin and amlodipine

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Abstract

Objectives. We sought to document the common mechanisms of the antiatherogenic effects of the cholesterol-lowering hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor lovastatin, the dihydropyridine Ca 2+ blocker amiodipine and the antioxidant vitamin E. Background. Vitamin E, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and Ca 2+ blockers each inhibit atheroselerosis in hypercholesterolemic animals. Methods. New Zealand White rabbits were fed regular chow (Group A), chow with 1% cholesterol (Group B), 1% cholesterol diet plus lovastatin (Group C), 1% cholesterol diet plus vitamin E (Group D) or 1% cholesterol diet plus amlodipine (Group E) for 12 weeks. The extent of aortic atherosclerosis was measured by planimetry of the sudanophilic area. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood were measured as indexes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity, respectively. Results. Group A rabbits showed no atherosclerosis, whereas Group B rabbits had 17.4 ± 9.3% (mean ± SD) of the aorta covered with atherosclerosis, and Groups C, D and E rabbits had significantly less atherosclerosis. Plasma SOD activity was lower in Group B than in Group A (6.9 ± 1.1 vs. 12.8 ± 1.5 U/ml, p < 0.01) and was preserved in the groups given lovastatin, vitamin E or amlodipine with a high cholesterol diet. The serum MDA level was higher in Group B rabbits than Group A rabbits (12.1 ± 2.6 vs. 1.2 ± 0.1 nmol/ml, p < 0.01) and increased minimally in rabbits given lovastatin, vitamin E or amlodipine with a high cholesterol diet. In in vitro experiments, both lovastatin and amlodipine preserved SOD activity and reduced the oxidizability of low density lipoproteins by rabbit leukocytes. Conclusions. This study suggests that a reduction in lipid peroxidation and preservation of SOD may be common mechanisms of antiatherosclerotic effects of lovastatin, vitamin E and amlodipine.

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Chen, L., Haught, W. H., Yang, B., Saldeen, T. G. P., Parathasarathy, S., & Mehta, J. L. (1997). Preservation of endogenous antioxidant activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation as common mechanisms of antiatherosclerotic effects of vitamin E, lovastatin and amlodipine. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 30(2), 569–575. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(97)00158-7

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