Objective: To review the prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in nursing homes. Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Setting: Nursing homes. Participants: Older adults aged ≥60 years. Measurements: Sarcopenia was defined according to various validated diagnostic criteria, such as the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria and skeletal muscle index (SMI). We performed meta-analyses with random effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of sarcopenia. The risk of bias of the included studies was evaluated using a 10-item tool explicitly designed for prevalence studies. Results: We included 16 studies with a total of 3585 participants from 129 nursing homes. The included studies were of low to moderate risk of bias. The pooled prevalences of EWGSOP-defined sarcopenia and SMI-defined sarcopenia were 41% [95% confidence interval (CI) 32%-51%, 12 studies, 2685 cases] and 59% (95% CI 24%-93%, 3 studies, 643 cases), respectively. The pooled prevalences of EWGSOP-defined sarcopenia in women and men were 46% (8 studies, 1332 cases) and 43% (8 studies, 739 cases), respectively. The pooled data showed that malnutrition was an independent associated factor of EWGSOP-defined sarcopenia (odds ratio [OR] 1.74, 95% CI 1.36-2.24; 3 studies, 718 cases), but malnutrition risk (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.53-1.94; 2 studies, 379 cases) and female gender were not (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.11-11.66; 3 studies, 827 cases). The association between age and body mass index with sarcopenia was inconsistent across studies. Limited evidence indicated that smoking might be related to sarcopenia. Conclusions/Implications: Sarcopenia is highly prevalent in older nursing home residents. Malnutrition may be an associated factor of sarcopenia. More prospective studies are needed to clarify the association between age, gender, malnutrition, and smoking with sarcopenia.
Shen, Y., Chen, J., Chen, X., Hou, L. S., Lin, X., & Yang, M. (2019, January 1). Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Nursing Home Residents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2018.09.012