Prevalence and associated factors of vernal keratoconjunctivitis among children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia

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Abstract

© 2016 The Author(s). Background: Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a common cause of ocular morbidity in children in warm dry climates such as Sub-Saharan Africa and accounts for about 3 % of serious ophthalmic cases in tropical countries. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of vernal keratoconjunctivitis among children living in Gondar City, Ethiopia. Methods: A Cross Sectional Design study was carried out in 737 children under the age of 18 years in Gondar City from April to May 2015. Basic ophthalmic examination was performed using a 3x magnifying loop and torch light and a pretested and structured questionnaire was completed. The association between vernal keratoconjunctivitis and factors such as socio-economic, demographic, and environmental status, and history of allergic disease in affected children and their family members was examined using logistic regression multivariate analysis. Results: The prevalence of vernal keratoconjunctivitis was 5.8 % (95 % CI: 4.14, 7.53) (43/737) and mixed type VKC was the most frequent form which was found in 35 out of 43 cases (81.4 %). The following were positively associated with vernal keratoconjunctivitis: use of kerosene/firewood for cooking (AOR = 6.25 (95 % CI: 1.61, 25)), child dust exposure (AOR = 10.0 (95 % CI: 4.16, 20.0)), child history of non-ocular allergic diseases (AOR = 4.0 (95 % CI: 1.92, 8.33)), family history of non-ocular allergic diseases (AOR = 3.57(95 % CI: 1.39, 9.09). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of vernal keratoconjunctivitis in this region. The use of kerosene/firewood for cooking, child dust exposure, and non-ocular allergic disease in the child or their family were statistically significant risk factors for vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

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APA

Hayilu, D., Legesse, K., Lakachew, N., & Asferaw, M. (2016). Prevalence and associated factors of vernal keratoconjunctivitis among children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Ophthalmology, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12886-016-0345-7

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