OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among married rural women with a history of at least one pregnancy in Madaripur, Bangladesh.<br /><br />MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using an interviewer administered, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. All women living in the study area, aged 18 years and above with at least one pregnancy in their lifetime, who were on the electoral roll and agreed to participate were included in the study. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and smokeless tobacco consumption was collected. Smokeless tobacco consumption was categorized as 'Current', 'Ever but not current' and 'Never'. Associations between smokeless tobacco consumption and the explanatory variables were estimated using simple and multiple binary logistic regression.<br /><br />RESULTS: 8074 women participated (response rate 99.9%). The prevalence of 'Current consumption', 'Ever consumption but not current', and 'Never consumption' was 25%, 44% and 31%, respectively. The mean age at first use was 31.5 years. 87% of current consumers reported using either Shadapata or Hakimpuree Jarda. Current consumption was associated with age, level of education, religion, occupation, being an income earner, marital status, and age at first use of smokeless tobacco. After adjustment for demographic variables, current consumption was associated with being over 25 years of age, a lower level of education, being an income earner, being Muslim, and being divorced, separated or widowed.<br /><br />CONCLUSION: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption is high among rural women in Bangladesh and the age of onset is considerably older than that for smoking. Smokeless tobacco consumption is likely to be producing a considerable burden of non-communicable disease in Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco control strategies should be implemented.
Hossain, M. S., Kypri, K., Rahman, B., Arslan, I., Akter, S., & Milton, A. H. (2014). Prevalence and correlates of smokeless tobacco consumption among married women in rural Bangladesh. PLoS ONE, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084470