Prevalence and determinants of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections among children under-five years in sub–Saharan Africa: Evidence from demographic and health surveys

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Abstract

Acute Lower Respiratory Infections (ALRIs) account for 5.8 million deaths globally and 50% of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we examined the prevalence and determinants of ALRIs among children under-five years in 28 sub–Saharan African countries. We used data from the most recent (2011–2016) Demographic and Health Surveys of the 28 countries. Women aged 15–49 (N = 13,495) with children under-five years participated in the study. Data were extracted and analysed using STATA version 14.2. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to establish associations between the outcome and explanatory variables. The prevalence of ALRI for all the countries was 25.3%. Congo (39.8%), Gabon (38.1%), Lesotho (35.2%), and Tanzania (35.2%) were the countries with the highest prevalence of ALRIs. The results from the multivariate analyses showed that children aged 24–59 months (AOR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.04–1.28), and children who received intestinal parasite in the 6 months preceding the survey (AOR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.02–1.22) had higher odds of developing ALRIs. However, children whose mothers were employed (AOR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.64–0.94) and those whose households used improved toilet facilities (AOR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.64–0.97) had lower odds of contracting ALRIs. Our findings underscore the need for stakeholders in health in the various sub-Saharan African countries, especially those worst affected by ALRIs to implement programmes and develop policies at different levels aimed at reducing infections among children under-five years. Such strategies should specifically focus on improving the administration of medications for intestinal worms, health education to mothers with children under five on ALRIs and improving the sanitation situations of households through the provision of improved toilet facilities.

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Seidu, A. A., Dickson, K. S., Ahinkorah, B. O., Amu, H., Darteh, E. K. M., & Kumi-Kyereme, A. (2019). Prevalence and determinants of Acute Lower Respiratory Infections among children under-five years in sub–Saharan Africa: Evidence from demographic and health surveys. SSM - Population Health, 8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100443

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