Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain due to Heavy Backpacks in School going Children of Karachi

  • Shahid G
  • Aziz K
  • Arif A
  • et al.
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INTRODUCTION Musculoskeletal disorders represent a significant problem of modern society which are more pronounced in young people and school children. Etiology of these disorders is found in inadequate ergonomic conditions, too heavy school bag, school furniture inadequate to age, poor posture, sedentary lifestyle, reduction of physical activity and lack of exercise. MATERIAL AND METHODS This cross-sectional study included 1315 pupils aged 8- 12 years. As a method was used "cluster sample" in the selection of subjects. The survey was conducted by questionnaire containing information on the demographic and individual characteristics of participants (age, gender, class), the manner and style of life and the performance of school tasks, followed by standardized Nordic questionnaire. The following parameters were measured: body height and weight for each student, and the weight of full and empty school bag that students that day brought to class. RESULTS The incidence of musculoskeletal pain regardless of localization was 48%. There is a statistically significant correlation between acute pain in the right shoulder and total weight of school bags, duration of caring the bag in school and time of wearing bag from school to home but not with the manner in which school bag was carried. Acute pain in the right shoulder and acute neck pain were significantly associated with the duration of sitting in school or in front of a computer at home. Acute pain in the shoulder negatively correlated with BMI percentile value of the respondents. Acute pain in the neck is also significantly associated with the weight of a full school bags, as well as time spent sitting at home doing homework. Acute back pain is statistically significantly correlated with the weight of school bags and duration of sitting periods in school. CONCLUSION The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain, particularly chronic pain in school children aged 8-12 years is high. Weight of school bags, manner in which the bag is carried to and from school, duration of carrying bags, time spent sitting in the school and in front of the computer, duration of sitting and posture during homework, body mass index are ergonomic reasons for the development of musculoskeletal pain.




Shahid, G., Aziz, K., Arif, A., & Faisal Fahim, M. (2018). Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain due to Heavy Backpacks in School going Children of Karachi. International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 06(03).

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