A large-scale procedure was developed for the anaerobic purification of the human recombinant Ca2+- and Zn2+-binding protein S100A3 for spectroscopic studies. S100A3 eluted as a non-covalently bound dimer (20.8 kDa). It contained 7.5±0.1 free thiol groups/monomer, and bound Ca2+ with a K(d) of ~4 mM, which corresponds to a tenfold increase in affinity compared to the aerobically purified protein. The transition metal ions Co2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ were used as spectroscopic probes to investigate the role of the 10 cysteine residues per monomer S100A3 in metal binding. Spectrophotometric titrations suggest the formation of dinuclear thiolate-bridged clusters consisting of a Me2+(S(Cys))4 and a Me2+(S(Cys))3(N(His)) site as described for zinc finger proteins. A three-dimensional structural model of S100A3 was proposed on the basis of the NMR structure of the structurally related rabbit S100A6 protein, and taking into account the structural influence of cysteine residues. Copyright (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.
Fritz, G., Heizmann, C. W., & Kroneck, P. M. H. (1998). Probing the structure of the human Ca2+- and Zn2+-binding protein S100A3: Spectroscopic investigations of its transition metal ion complexes, and three-dimensional structural model. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research, 1448(2), 264–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4889(98)00138-4