Background: The use of Ionic liquids (ILs) as biomass solvents is considered to be an attractive alternative for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Acid catalysts have been used previously to hydrolyze polysaccharides into fermentable sugars during IL pretreatment. This could potentially provide a means of liberating fermentable sugars from biomass without the use of costly enzymes. However, the separation of the sugars from the aqueous IL and recovery of IL is challenging and imperative to make this process viable. Results: Aqueous alkaline solutions are used to induce the formation of a biphasic system to recover sugars produced from the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of switchgrass in imidazolium-based ILs. The amount of sugar produced from this process was proportional to the extent of biomass solubilized. Pretreatment at high temperatures (e.g., 160°C, 1.5 h) was more effective in producing glucose. Sugar extraction into the alkali phase was dependent on both the amount of sugar produced by acidolysis and the alkali concentration in the aqueous extractant phase. Maximum yields of 53% glucose and 88% xylose are recovered in the alkali phase, based on the amounts present in the initial biomass. The partition coefficients of glucose and xylose between the IL and alkali phases can be accurately predicted using molecular dynamics simulations. Conclusions: This biphasic system may enable the facile recycling of IL and rapid recovery of the sugars, and provides an alternative route to the production of monomeric sugars from biomass that eliminates the need for enzymatic saccharification and also reduces the amount of water required. © 2013 Sun et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Sun, N., Liu, H., Sathitsuksanoh, N., Stavila, V., Sawant, M., Bonito, A., … Holmes, B. M. (2013). Production and extraction of sugars from switchgrass hydrolyzed in ionic liquids. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-6-39