Physicochemical, cooking quality and sensory characteristics of noodles fortified by whole lupine meal (WLM) and defatted lupine meal (DLM) as different protein products were evaluated. Optimum cooking time significantly decreased with increasing the replacement levels. The prepared noodles contained 10% WLM or DLM had swelling indices similar to that in the control sample. The higher cooking yield was observed in prepared noodles using 20% WLM or DLM. The cooking loss was improved when using DLM with significant (p < 0.05) lower values at all replacement levels than that in control sample. Used the WLM and DLM at levels 5% and 10%, respectively gave low nitrogen loss values. Calculated protein efficiency ratio, proportion of essential amino acid to the total amino acids, essential amino acid index, biological value, chemical score and limiting amino acid were improved. The received scores from sensory evaluation showed that WLM or DLM noodles at levels 5–10% or 5–20%, respectively had higher flavor and overall acceptability values with non-significant (p > 0.05) differences compared to the control sample.
Mahmoud, E. A. M., Nassef, S. L., & Basuny, A. M. M. (2012). Production of high protein quality noodles using wheat flour fortified with different protein products from lupine. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 57(2), 105–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas.2012.08.003