Introduction: Intracranial haemorrhages (ICH) represent a severe and frequently lethal complication in patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA). The purpose of our study is to describe the factors and clinical features associated with mortality in these patients. Methods: We conducted an observational, retrospective, multi-centre study based on prospective stroke registries in Spain. We included all patients admitted to neurology departments during a one-year period who met the following inclusion criteria: being 18 or older, having a diagnosis of ICH, and receiving VKA. Clinical and radiological parameters and 3-month outcomes were analysed. Results: A total of 235 patients from 21 hospitals were included. Mortality rate at 90 days was 42.6%. Bivariate analysis showed a significant association between death and the following factors: median NIHSS score at admission (5 [IQR = 9] vs 17 [IQR = 14] points, P<.01) and presence of an extensive hemispheric haemorrhage (4.9% vs 35%, P <.01; χ2). Extensive hemispheric haemorrhages, in addition to being the most lethal type, were associated with a shorter time to death (mean of 16.5 days; 95% CI: 7.1-26). A logistic regression model showed that only baseline NIHSS scores independently predicted death (odds ratio = 1.13 [95% CI: 1.08-1.17] for each point in the scale). Conclusion: ICH in patients treated with VKA is associated with high mortality rates; mortality in these patients is mainly and independently associated with the clinical situation at stroke onset.
Zapata-Wainberg, G., Quintas, S., Ximénez-Carrillo Rico, A., Benavente Fernández, L., Masjuan Vallejo, J., Gállego Culleré, J., … Vivancos, J. (2018). Prognostic factors and analysis of mortality due to brain haemorrhages associated with vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. Results from the TAC registry. Neurologia, 33(7), 419–426. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2016.07.005