BACKGROUND The pathophysiology of cardiac syndrome X is multifactorial and endothelial dysfunction has been implicated as important contributing factor. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), characterized as a circulating endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, may have been implicated as an important contributing factor for the development of endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we aim to assess the predictive power of ADMA for long-term prognosis in patients with cardiac syndrome X. METHODS AND RESULTS We enrolled 239 consecutive patients with cardiac syndrome X diagnosed by coronary angiography. The mean age was 58.7±10.1 years. The patients were grouped into tertiles according to the plasma ADMA levels: <0.38 μmol/l (tertile I), 0.38-0.44 μmol/l (tertile II), and >0.44 μmol/l (tertile III). All patients were followed up for a mean period of 6.5±1.5 years (median: 6.3 years, inter-quartile range: 5.7-8.0 years). During the follow-up period, major adverse events (MAE) were observed in 15 patients (6.3%), including 13 deaths. The plasma ADMA levels in patients who developed MAE were significantly higher than those who did not (0.48±0.06 μmol/l vs. 0.42±0.08 μmol/l, p = 0.005). In multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, eGFR and LVEF, ADMA tertile I and II were identify to be associated with a significantly lower risk of MAE compared to ADMA tertile III (p = 0.017). By considering the plasma ADMA level as a continuous variable, the plasma ADMA level remained a significant independent predictor for outcomes of MAE, and the relative risk of MACE increased by 50% when plasma ADMA level increased by 1 SD of value (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS In patients with cardiac syndrome X, elevated plasma ADMA levels appeared to be an independent predictor of long-term adverse clinical outcomes.
Lu, T. M., Lee, T. S., Lin, S. J., Chan, W. L., & Hsu, C. P. (2017). The prognostic value of asymmetric dimethylarginine in patients with cardiac syndrome X. PLoS ONE, 12(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188995