Objective: Cytokines are inflammatory mediators implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathogenesis. The cytokine expression profile of the AAA is poorly defined and has focused on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, at the expense of chemokines and growth factors. This study aims to investigate the cytokine expression profile of the established AAA wall. Methods: Cytokine protein expression was measured in homogenized human aortic tissue (10 AAAs and 9 nonaneurysmal controls) using a 42-cytokine antibody-based protein array. Data were quantified using densitometric analysis and statistically analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. Results: A significant difference in cytokine expression between AAA and control samples was found in 15 of 42 cytokines. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines were upregulated within the AAA compared with the control: interleukin (IL)-6 (P = .001), IL-1α (P = .001), IL-1β (P < .001), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P = .002), TNF-β (P = .002), and oncostatin M (P = .007). The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was also upregulated (P = .002). Members of the chemokine family were also highly expressed within AAA samples: IL-8 (P = .001), epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 (ENA-78; P = .006), growth related oncogene (GRO; P < .001), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (P = .003), MCP-2 (P < .001), and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES; P = .001). Of the growth factors examined, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF; P = .003) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF; P = .004) were significantly higher in the AAA. Conclusions: The established AAA is characterized by a distinct cytokine profile consisting of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and specific growth factors. This suggests that these cytokines may contribute to pathologic changes within the established, preruptured aneurysm. © 2007 The Society for Vascular Surgery.
Middleton, R. K., Lloyd, G. M., Bown, M. J., Cooper, N. J., London, N. J., & Sayers, R. D. (2007). The pro-inflammatory and chemotactic cytokine microenvironment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm wall: A protein array study. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 45(3), 574–580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2006.11.020