To trigger type I interferon (IFN) responses, pattern recognition receptors activate signaling cascades that lead to transcription of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein has been implicated in these responses, although its role has not been defined. Here, we show that PML isoform II (PML-II) is specifically required for efficient induction of IFN-β transcription and of numerous ISGs, acting at the point of transcriptional complex assembly on target gene promoters. PML-II associated with specific transcription factors NF-κB and STAT1, as well as the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP), to facilitate transcriptional complex formation. The absence of PML-II substantially reduced binding of these factors and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) to IFN-β or ISGs promoters and sharply reduced gene activation. The unique C-terminal domain of PML-II was essential for its activity, while the N-terminal RBCC motif common to all PML isoforms was dispensable. We propose a model in which PML-II contributes to the transcription of multiple genes via the association of its C-terminal domain with relevant transcription complexes, which promotes the stable assembly of these complexes at promoters/enhancers of target genes, and that in this way PML-II plays a significant role in the development of type I IFN responses.
Chen, Y., Wright, J., Meng, X., & Leppard, K. N. (2015). Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein Isoform II Promotes Transcription Factor Recruitment To Activate Interferon Beta and Interferon-Responsive Gene Expression. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 35(10), 1660–1672. https://doi.org/10.1128/mcb.01478-14