© 2018 Lau, Chan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the internal consistency, reliability, convergent validity, known-group comparisons, and structural validity of the Chinese version of Fear of Intimacy with Helping Professionals (C–FIS–HP) scale in Macau. Methods A cross-sectional design was used on a sample of 593 older people in 6 health centers. We used Chinese version of Exercise of Self-Care Agency Scale (C-ESCAS) and Morisky 4-item medication adherence scale to evaluate self-care actions and medication adherence. The internal consistency and reliability of C–FIS–HP were analyzed using the Spearman-Brown split-half reliability, Cronbach’s alpha, and test–retest reliability. Convergent validity was tested the construct of C–FIS–HP and self-care actions. Known-group comparisons differentiated predefined groups in an expected direction. Two separated samples were used to test the structural validity. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) tested the factor structure of C–FISHP using the principal axis factoring. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was further conducted to confirm the factor structure constructed in the prior EFA. Results The C–FIS–HP had a Spearman-Brown split-half coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha, and intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.96, 0.93, and 0.96, respectively. Convergent validity was satisfactory with significantly correlations between the C-FIS-HP and C-ESCAS. C–FIS–HP to differentiate the differences between high-, moderate-, and low- medication adherence groups. EFA demonstrated a two-factor structure among 297 older people. A first-order CFA was performed to confirm the construct dimensionality of C–FIS–HP with satisfactory fit indices (NFI = 0.92; IFI = 0.95; TLI = 0.94; CFI = 0.95 and RMSEA = 0.07) among 296 older people. Conclusions C–FIS–HP is a reliable and valid test for assessing helping relationships in older Chinese people. Health professionals can use C–FIS–HP as a clinical tool to assess the comfort level of patients in a helping relationship, and use this information to develop culturally sensitive therapeutic interventions and treatment plans. Further studies need to be conducted concerning the different psychometric properties, as well as the application of C–FIS–HP in various regions.
Lau, Y., & Chan, K. S. (2018). Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the fear of intimacy with helping professionals scale. PLoS ONE, 13(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196774