Psychometric Evaluation of a Turkish Version of the Diabetes Fear of Self-injecting and Self-testing Questionnaire (D-FISQ)

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Purpose To examine the psychometric properties of a Turkish version of the Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-testing Questionnaire (D-FISQ). Methods Forward-backward translation of the D-FISQ from English into Turkish was conducted. Original English and translated forms were examined by a panel group. Validity was investigated using content, confirmatory factor analysis, and divergent validity. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach α values, item-total correlations, and intraclass correlations. The sample comprised 350 patients with diabetes. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 for Windows and LISREL 8. Results The content validity index for the panel members was .90, which indicated perfect content validity; items in D-FISQ were clear, concise, readable, and distinct. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the original construct of the D-FISQ. All items had factor loadings higher than the recommended level of .40. The D-FISQ scores were discriminated by the level of anxiety. Reliability results were also satisfactory. Cronbach α values were within ideal limits. Item-total correlation coefficient ranged from .72 to .86. In terms of test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be over .90. Conclusions D-FISQ is a valid and reliable questionnaire in assessing needle-prick fear among Turkish patients with diabetes. We recommend performing the Turkish D-FISQ in determining and screening patients with diabetes who have fear related to self-insulin injection and finger-prick test. Thus, health care professionals should be aware of the potential consequences of injection fear such as insulin misuse and poor self-monitoring of blood glucose, which may have unfavorable effects on optimal diabetes management.




Celik, S., & Pinar, R. (2016). Psychometric Evaluation of a Turkish Version of the Diabetes Fear of Self-injecting and Self-testing Questionnaire (D-FISQ). Asian Nursing Research, 10(3), 195–200.

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