Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates are widely recognised antivirals. The oral prodrugs of prototype compounds, e.g., 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA; adefovir), and 9-(R)-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [(R)-PMPA; tenofovir] were approved by FDA for treatment of hepatitis B (Hepsera), and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Viread), respectively. A number of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates possess immunostimulatory activity. The present experiments demonstrate that activation of cytokine and chemokine secretion is mediated by adenosine receptors. Included in the study were 9-(R)-[2- (phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [tenofovir], N6-cyclopentyl-(R)-9- [2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine, N6-cyclopropyl-(R)-9- [2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine, and N6-isobutyl-9-[2- (phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]-2,6-diaminopurine. All of them activate secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), "regulated on activation of normal T cell expressed and secreted" (RANTES/CCL5), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α/CCL3) in murine macrophages. With exception of MIP-1α, the effects were inhibited by antagonists of adenosine A1, A2B, and A 3 receptors (not by adenosine A2A receptor antagonist). The adenosine A1 receptor antagonist inhibited TNF-α, IL-10, and RANTES, adenosine A2B receptor antagonist inhibited TNF-α and RANTES, and adenosine A3 receptor antagonist inhibited IL-10 and RANTES. The suppression is due to decreased transcription of cytokine mRNA. It may be suggested that acyclic nucleoside phosphonates are nonspecific ligands for purine P1 receptors. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kmoníčková, E., Potměšil, P., Holý, A., & Zídek, Z. (2006). Purine P1 receptor-dependent immunostimulatory effects of antiviral acyclic analogues of adenine and 2,6-diaminopurine. European Journal of Pharmacology, 530(1–2), 179–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.11.037