© 2014 Greene et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Background: Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of nonhuman primates is the predominant model for preclinical evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines. These studies frequently utilize high-doses of SIV that ensure infection after a single challenge but do not recapitulate critical facets of sexual HIV transmission. Investigators are increasingly using low-dose challenges in which animals are challenged once every week or every two weeks in order to better replicate sexual HIV transmission. Using this protocol, some animals require over ten challenges before SIV infection is detectable, potentially inducing localized immunity. Moreover, the lack of certainty over which challenge will lead to productive infection prevents tissue sampling immediately surrounding the time of infection. Findings: Here we challenged Mauritian cynomolgus macaques with 100 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID 50 ) of SIVmac239 intrarectally three times a day for three consecutive days. Ten of twelve animals had positive plasma viral loads after this challenge regimen. Conclusions: This approach represents a straightforward advance in SIV challenge protocols that may avoid induction of local immunity, avoid inconsistent timing between last immunization and infection, and allow sampling immediately after infection using low-dose challenge protocols.
Greene, J. M., Weiler, A. M., Reynolds, M. R., Cain, B. T., Pham, N. H., Ericsen, A. J., … O’Connor, D. H. (2014). Rapid, repeated, low-dose challenges with SIVmac239 infect animals in a condensed challenge window. Retrovirology, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12977-014-0066-z