Reappraisal of constraints on Z′ models from unitarity and direct searches at the LHC

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Abstract

We reexamine a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM) through the introduction of an additional $U(1)$ symmetry leading to a new neutral gauge boson ($Z'$). An SM neutral scalar is used to spontaneously break this extra symmetry leading to the mass of the $Z'$. Except for three right-handed neutrinos no other fermions are added. After a brief recapitulation, we use the current LHC Drell-Yan~(DY) data to put model independent constraints on the $Z'$ couplings. Three important unknowns here are $M_{Z'}$, the $Z$-$Z'$ mixing angle ($\alpha_z$), and the extra $U(1)$ gauge coupling ($g_x$). Treating $g_x$ as a parameter, juxtaposition of additional constraints from unitarity and low energy neutrino-electron scattering on that obtained from the direct searches allows us to extract the following limits in the gauged $(B-L)$ model: $M_{Z'} > 3.5$ TeV and $|\alpha_z| < 0.003$, when the strength of the additional $U(1)$ gauge coupling is the same as that of the SM $SU(2)_L$. For vanishing $Z$-$Z'$ mixing, the lower limit on $M_{Z'}$ goes up to 4~TeV. For some other $U(1)$ models we considered, the bounds turn out to be roughly of the same order.

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Bandyopadhyay, T., Bhattacharyya, G., Das, D., & Raychaudhuri, A. (2018). Reappraisal of constraints on Z′ models from unitarity and direct searches at the LHC. Physical Review D, 98(3). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.98.035027

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