© 2014 Elsheikha et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive update on the biology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of canine cardio-pulmonary angiostrongylosis. This cardiopulmonary disease is caused by infection by the metastrongyloid nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum. The parasite has an indirect life cycle that involves at least two different hosts, gastropod molluscs (intermediate host) and canids (definitive host). A. vasorum represents a common and serious problem for dogs in areas of endemicity, and because of the expansion of its geographical boundaries to many areas where it was absent or uncommon; its global burden is escalating. A. vasorum infection in dogs can result in serious disorders with potentially fatal consequences. Diagnosis in the live patient depends on faecal analysis, PCR or blood testing for parasite antigens or anti-parasite antibodies. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible except post mortem, while diagnostic imaging and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment normally requires the administration of anthelmintic drugs, and sometimes supportive therapy for complications resulting from infection.
Elsheikha, H. M., Holmes, S. A., Wright, I., Morgan, E. R., & Lacher, D. W. (2014). Recent advances in the epidemiology, clinical and diagnostic features, and control of canine cardio-pulmonary angiostrongylosis. Veterinary Research, 45(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13567-014-0092-9