Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) remove phosphate groups from tyrosine residues, and thereby propagate or inhibit signal transduction, and hence influence cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. The importance of tightly controlled PTP activity is reflected by the numerous mechanisms employed by the cell to control PTP activity, including a variety of post-translational modifications, and restricted subcellular localization. This review highlights the strides made in the last decade and discusses the important role of PTPs in key aspects of embryonic development: the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, gastrulation and somitogenesis during early embryonic development, osteogenesis, and angiogenesis. The tentative importance of PTPs in these processes is highlighted by the diseases that present upon aberrant activity.
Hale, A. J., ter Steege, E., & den Hertog, J. (2017, August 15). Recent advances in understanding the role of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in development and disease. Developmental Biology. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2017.03.023