Neutrophils contribute to innate host immunity by functioning as professional phagocytes, whereas dendritic cells (DCs) are prototypic antigen presenting cells (APCs) responsible for the induction of adaptive immune responses. We have demonstrated recently that neutrophils trans-differentiate into a unique population, termed "neutrophil-DC hybrids," expressing surface markers of both neutrophils and DCs and exhibiting dual functionality of both phagocytes and APCs. Although the hybrid cells emerged in significant numbers in murine bone marrow (BM) culture in the presence of GM-CSF, mechanisms regulating their development remained mostly unknown. In this study, we tested a total of 61 cytokines for their potentials to regulate neutrophil-DC hybrid formation using a newly developed BM micro-culture system combined with semi-automated FACS analysis. Several cytokines including GM-CSF were found to promote the generation of neutrophil-DC hybrids defined by the phenotype of CD11c+/MHC II +/Ly6G+. When tested in the presence of GM-CSF, hybrid cell development was enhanced by IL-4 and suppressed by interferon-ã (IFNã) in dose-dependent fashions. We next determined in vivo impacts of IL-4 and IFNã on the development of neutrophil-DC hybrids in thioglycollate-induced peritonitis lesions. Intraperitoneal administrations of IL-4/anti-IL-4 antibody complex (IL-4C) significantly increased the number of hybrids recovered from the lesions. By contract, recovery of hybrids was reduced by recombinant IFNã. With regard to function, those hybrid cells recovered from IL-4C-treated mice and IFNγ-treated mice showed potent abilities to capture E.coli. These observations imply that emergence of neutrophil-DC hybrids in inflammatory sites is tightly regulated by local cytokine milieus. © 2013 Geng et al.
Geng, S., Matsushima, H., Okamoto, T., Yao, Y., Lu, R., & Takashima, A. (2013). Reciprocal regulation of development of neutrophil- Dendritic cell hybrids in mice by IL-4 and interferon- gamma. PLoS ONE, 8(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082929