Background: Complement 3 (C3), a key component of the innate immune system, is involved in early inflammatory responses. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP; aka C3adesArg), a C3 cleavage product, is produced in adipose tissue and stimulates lipid storage. We hypothesized that, depending on the diet, chronic ASP administration in C3-/- mice would affect lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity via an adaptive adipose tissue inflammatory response. Methodology/Principal Findings: C3-/- mice on normal low fat diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD) were chronically administered recombinant ASP (rASP) for 25 days via an osmotic mini-pump. While there was no effect on food intake, there was a decrease in activity, with a relative increase in adipose tissue weight on ND, and a shift in adipocyte size distribution. While rASP administration to C3-/- mice on a ND increased insulin sensitivity, on a HFD, rASP administration had the opposite effect. Specifically, rASP administration in C3-/- HFD mice resulted in decreased gene expression of IRS1, GLUT4, SREBF1 and NFκB in muscle, and decreased C5L2 but increased JNK, CD36, CD11c, CCR2 and NFκB gene expression in adipose tissue as well as increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (Rantes, KC, MCP-1, IL-6 and G-CSF). In adipose tissue, although IRS1 and GLUT4 mRNA were unchanged, insulin response was reduced. Conclusion: The effects of chronic rASP administration are tissue and diet specific, rASP administration enhances the HFD induced inflammatory response leading to an insulin-resistant state. These results suggest that, in humans, the increased plasma ASP associated with obesity and cardiovascular disease could be an additional factor directly contributing to development of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes. © 2012 Munkonda et al.
Munkonda, M. N., Lapointe, M., Miegueu, P., Roy, C., Gauvreau, D., Richard, D., & Cianflone, K. (2012). Recombinant Acylation Stimulating Protein Administration to C3-/- Mice Increases Insulin Resistance via Adipocyte Inflammatory Mechanisms. PLoS ONE, 7(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0046883