Redifferentiation of iodine-refractory BRAF V600E-mutant metastatic papillary thyroid cancer with dabrafenib

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Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine whether the selective BRAF inhibitor, dabrafenib, can stimulate radioiodine uptake in BRAF V600E-mutated unresectable or metastatic iodine-refractory papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Ten patients with BRAF V600E-mutant iodine-refractory PTC were enrolled. Absence of radioiodine uptake on iodine-131 whole body scan obtained within 14 months of study entry was required. Each patient received dabrafenib (150 mg twice daily) for 25 days before thyrotropin alpha-stimulated iodine-131 whole body scan (4 mCi/148 MBq). Patients whose scan showed new sites of radioiodine uptake remained on dabrafenib for 17 more days, and then were treated with 150 mCi (5.5 GBq) iodine-131. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of patients with new radioiodine uptake after treatment with dabrafenib. RESULTS: Six of 10 patients (60%) demonstrated new radioiodine uptake on whole body scan after treatment with dabrafenib. All 6 were treated with 5.5 GBq iodine-131. Two patients had partial responses and 4 patients had stable disease on standard radiographic restaging at 3 months. Thyroglobulin decreased in 4 of 6 treated patients. One patient developed squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. There were no other significant adverse events attributed to dabrafenib. CONCLUSIONS: Dabrafenib can stimulate radioiodine uptake in patients with metastatic BRAF V600E-mutant iodine-refractory PTC, representing a potential new therapeutic approach for these patients.

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Rothenberg, S. M., McFadden, D. G., Palmer, E. L., Daniels, G. H., & Wirth, L. J. (2015). Redifferentiation of iodine-refractory BRAF V600E-mutant metastatic papillary thyroid cancer with dabrafenib. Clinical Cancer Research, 21(5), 1028–1035. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2915

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