Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is caused by a heterogenous group of diseases with different pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, treatment approaches, and outcomes. The 2 most common forms of RAS are fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and atherosclerosis (ARAS). Renovascular syndromes are broadly classified into renovascular hypertension and ischemic nephropathy, but these terms are misleading, because they imply a causal relationship between RAS, hypertension, and renal dysfunction, which is difficult to prove in humans. Data supporting renal revascularization are limited by heterogeneous causes of hypertension and renal dysfunction, insufficient understanding of the relationship between RAS and nephropathy, inconsistent techniques for revascularization, ambiguous terminology and end points to assess benefit, and lack of large-scale randomized trials. The purpose of this review is to enhance understanding of the epidemiology, clinical markers, and diagnosis of RAS; the relationship between RAS and important disease states; the distinction between renal ischemia and nephropathy; optimal revascularization techniques; and avoidance of renal injury. © 2009 American College of Cardiology Foundation.
Safian, R. D., & Madder, R. D. (2009, March). Refining the Approach to Renal Artery Revascularization. JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2008.10.014