In anatomical and functional studies of the human and animal urethra, the middle urethral contained rhabdosphincter is critical for maintaining continence. Transplanted muscle and/or stem cells may have the ability to undergo self-renewal and multipotent differentiation, leading to sphincter regeneration. In addition, such cells may release, or be engineered to release, neurotrophins with subsequent paracrine recruitment of endogenous host cells to concomitantly promote a regenerative response of nerve-integrated muscle. Cell-based therapies include the use of autologous multipotent stem cells, such as the bone marrow stromal cells. However, harvesting bone marrow stromal stem cells is difficult, painful, and may yield low numbers of stem cells upon processing. In contrast, alternative autologous adult stem cells such as muscle-derived stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells can be easily obtained in large quantities and with minimal discomfort. We will review the neurophysiology of stress urinary incontinence (highlighting the importance of the middle urethra); current injectable cell sources for cystoscopic treatment; and the potential of muscle-derived cells. © 2008 Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu Chi Foundation.
Jankowski, R., Pruchnic, R., Wagner, D., & Chancellor, M. B. (2008). Regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. Tzu Chi Medical Journal. Elsevier (Singapore) Pte Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1016-3190(08)60032-4