Regulated expression of the TPβ isoform of the human T prostanoid receptor by the tumour suppressors FOXP1 and NKX3.1: Implications for the role of thromboxane in prostate cancer

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Abstract

The prostanoid thromboxane (TX)A2 signals through the TPα and TPβ isoforms of T Prostanoid receptor (TP) that are transcriptionally regulated by distinct promoters termed Prm1 and Prm3, respectively, within the TBXA2R gene. We recently demonstrated that expression of TPα and TPβ is increased in PCa, differentially correlating with Gleason grade and with altered CpG methylation of the individual Prm1/Prm3 regions within the TBXA2R. The current study sought to localise the sites of CpG methylation within Prm1 and Prm3, and to identify the main transcription factors regulating TPβ expression through Prm3 in the prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines. Bisulfite sequencing revealed extensive differences in the pattern and status of CpG methylation of the individual Prm1 and Prm3 regions that regulate TPα and TPβ expression, respectively, within the TBXA2R. More specifically, Prm1 is predominantly hypomethylated while Prm3 is hypermethylated across its entire sequence in PC-3 and LNCaP cells. Furthermore, the tumour suppressors FOXP1 and NKX3.1, strongly implicated in PCa development, were identified as key transcription factors regulating TPβ expression through Prm3 in both PCa cell lines. Specific siRNA-disruption of FOXP1 and NKX3.1 each coincided with up-regulated TPβ protein and mRNA expression, while genetic-reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses confirmed that both FOXP1 and NKX3.1 bind to cis‑elements within Prm3 to transcriptionally repress TPβ in the PCa lines. Collectively these data identify Prm3/TPβ as a bona fide target of FOXP1 and NKX3.1 regulation, providing a mechanistic basis, at least in part, for the highly significant upregulation of TPβ expression in PCa.

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O’Sullivan, A. G., Eivers, S. B., Mulvaney, E. P., & Kinsella, B. T. (2017). Regulated expression of the TPβ isoform of the human T prostanoid receptor by the tumour suppressors FOXP1 and NKX3.1: Implications for the role of thromboxane in prostate cancer. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease, 1863(12), 3153–3169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.09.005

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