Numerous neuropeptide systems have been implicated to coordinately control energy homeostasis, both centrally and peripherally. However, the vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY) system has emerged as the best described one regarding this biological process. The protostomian ortholog of NPY is neuropeptide F, characterized by an RXRF(Y)amide carboxyterminal motif. A second neuropeptide system is short NPF, characterized by an M/T/L/FRF(W)amide carboxyterminal motif. Although both short and long NPF neuropeptide systems display carboxyterminal sequence similarities, they are evolutionary distant and likely already arose as separate signaling systems in the common ancestor of deuterostomes and protostomes, indicating the functional importance of both. Both NPF and short-NPF systems seem to have roles in the coordination of feeding across bilaterian species, but during chordate evolution, the short NPF system appears to have been lost or evolved into the prolactin releasing peptide signaling system, which regulates feeding and has been suggested to be orthologous to sNPF. Here we review the roles of both NPF and sNPF systems in the regulation of feeding and metabolism in invertebrates.
Fadda, M., Hasakiogullari, I., Temmerman, L., Beets, I., Zels, S., & Schoofs, L. (2019). Regulation of feeding and metabolism by neuropeptide F and short neuropeptide F in invertebrates. Frontiers in Endocrinology. Frontiers Media S.A. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00064