Vitamin A has both positive and negative regulatory functions in the immune system. While vitamin A is required for normal formation of immune cells and epithelial cell barriers, vitamin A deficiency can lead to increased inflammatory responses and tissue damage. The mechanism with which vitamin A and its metabolites such as retinoids negatively regulate inflammatory responses has not been clearly defined. Recently, it has been established that retinoids promote the generation of immune-suppressive FoxP 3+ regulatory T cells while they suppress the T cell differentiation into inflammatory Th17 cells in the periphery such as intestine. These novel functions of retinoids provide a potentially important immune regulatory mechanism. In this review, we discuss the functions of retinoids in the development of the FoxP 3+ cells and Th17 cells, the phenotype and functions of retinoid-induced FoxP 3+ T cells, and the impact of retinoid-induced FoxP 3+ T cells on the immune tolerance.
Kim, C. H. (2008). Regulation of FoxP 3+ Regulatory T Cells and Th17 Cells by Retinoids . Clinical and Developmental Immunology, 2008, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1155/2008/416910