The regulation of nitrogen fixation in Azospirillum brasilense is very complicated, and it responds to exogenous fixed nitrogen or a change of oxygen concentration. This regulation occurs at both transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Unlike regulation seen in Klebsiella pneumoniae, transcription of nifA does not require NTRB/NTRC in A. brasilense and the expression of nifHDK is controlled by posttranslational regulation of NIFA activity. Addition of NH4+ or a shift from microaerobic to anaerobic conditions also causes a rapid loss of nitrogenase activity in A. brasilense. This posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity involves the DRAT/DRAG regulatory system, which is similar to that of Rhodospirillum rubrum. Both DRAT and DRAG activities are regulated in vivo, but the mechanisms for their regulation are unknown.
Zhang, Y., Burris, R. H., Ludden, P. W., & Roberts, G. P. (1997, July 15). Regulation of nitrogen fixation in Azospirillum brasilense. FEMS Microbiology Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1097(97)00187-0