Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is regulated by members of the 14-3-3 protein family. However, knowledge about the variation between 14-3-3 proteins in their regulation of TH is still limited. We examined the binding, effects on activation and dephosphorylation kinetics of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) by abundant midbrain 14-3-3 proteins (β, η, ζ, γ and ε) of different dimer composition. All 14-3-3 homodimers and their respective 14-3-3ε-heterodimers bound with similar high affinity (K d values of 1.4-3.8 nM) to serine19 phosphorylated human TH (TH-pS19). We similarly observed a consistent activation of bovine (3.3- to 4.4-fold) and human TH-pS19 (1.3-1.6 fold) across all the different 14-3-3 dimer species, with homodimeric 14-3-3γ being the strongest activator. Both hetero- and homodimers of 14-3-3 strongly inhibited dephosphorylation of TH-pS19, and we speculate if this is an important homeostatic mechanism of 14-3-3 target-protein regulation in vivo. We conclude that TH is a robust interaction partner of different 14-3-3 dimer types with moderate variability between the 14-3-3 dimers on their regulation of TH.
Ghorbani, S., Fossbakk, A., Jorge-Finnigan, A., Flydal, M. I., Haavik, J., & Kleppe, R. (2016). Regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase is preserved across different homo- and heterodimeric 14-3-3 proteins. Amino Acids, 48(5), 1221–1229. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-015-2157-0