This paper aims at examining the relationship between energy consumption deriving from renewable energy sources, and countries’ economic growth expressed as GDP per capita concerning 25 European countries. The used dataset involves European countries’ data for the period from 2007 to 2016. The statistical analysis is based on descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL), and reveals that all variables are related; this suggests a correlation between the dependent variable of GDP and the independents of renewable energy sources (RES) and Non-RES energy consumption, gross fixed capital formation, and labor force in the long-run. Furthermore, the results show that there is a higher correlation between RES’ consumption and the economic growth of countries of higher GDP than with those of lower GDP. The obtained results are consistent with other papers reviewed in this study.
Ntanos, S., Skordoulis, M., Kyriakopoulos, G., Arabatzis, G., Chalikias, M., Galatsidas, S., … Katsarou, A. (2018). Renewable energy and economic growth: Evidence from European countries. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/su10082626