Mammalian females generally carry the bulk of reproductive costs. They gestate for relatively long periods of time and provide the majority of parental care for dependent offspring. For this reason, many studies have examined how females deal with the energetic costs of reproduction. Here, we examine the influence of reproductive state on activity budgets, diet quality, and sociality in free-living female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. After controlling for dominance rank, we found that pregnant and lactating females consumed higher quality foods than nonpregnant, nonlactating females. However, pregnant females also traveled less. This result did not reflect differences in sociality, as the pregnant female group sizes included in our analyses were comparable to those in other reproductive categories.
Murray, C. M., Lonsdorf, E. V., Eberly, L. E., & Pusey, A. E. (2009). Reproductive energetics in free-living female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Behavioral Ecology, 20(6), 1211–1216. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arp114