High concentrations of nickel (Ni) are harmful to humans and animals. Ni targets a number of organs and produces multiple toxic effects. Apoptosis is important in Ni-induced toxicity of the kidneys, liver, nerves, and immune system. Apoptotic pathways mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Fas, and c-Myc participate in Ni-induced cell apoptosis. However, the exact mechanism of apoptosis caused by Ni is still unclear. Understanding the mechanism of Ni-induced apoptosis may help in designing measures to prevent Ni toxicity.
Guo, H., Chen, L., Cui, H., Peng, X., Fang, J., Zuo, Z., … Wu, B. (2015, December 23). Research advances on pathways of nickel-induced apoptosis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. MDPI AG. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17010010