© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. To further investigate the regulation role of two chemokine genes CCL3 and CCL4 in chondrocytes in response to resistin, human primary chondrocytes and T/C-28a2 cells were cultured. The function of resistin on the chemokine genes, and the expression of C/EBPβ, NF-κB isoforms were tested using qPCR. The methods used to investigate timed co-regulation of C/EBPβ and NF-κB were NF-κB inhibitor (IKK-NBD) and C/EBPβ inhibitor (SB303580) treatments, and subcellular localization, with or without resistin stimulation. Results showed that resistin could increase the up-regulation of chemokine genes independently. Resistin increased the expression of C/EBPβ and NF-κB isoforms. C/EBPβ regulated basal activity and steadily increased over time up to 24h with resistin. NF-κB was up-regulated upon induction with resistin, peaking at 4 h. C/EBPβ and NF-κBco-enhanced the chemokines expression; inhibition of their activity was additive. Thetiming of activation in chondrocytes was confirmed by subcellular localization of C/EBPβ and c-rel. Chondrocytes react to resistin in a non-restricted cell-specific manner, utilizing C/EBPβ and NF-κB in a combinatorial regulation of chemokine gene expression. The activity of C/EBPβ is augmented by a transient increase in activity of NF-κB, and both transcription factors act independently on the chemokine genes, CCL3 and CCL4. Thus, resistin stimulates CCL3 and CCL4 through combinatorial regulation of C/EBPβ and NF-κB in chondrocytes.
Zhang, Z., Zhang, Z., Kang, Y., Hou, C., Duan, X., Sheng, P., … Liao, W. (2014). Resistin stimulates expression of chemokine genes in chondrocytes via combinatorial regulation of c/EBPβ and NF-κB. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 15(10), 17242–17255. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms151017242